Mount Damavand

On a clear day, the snow-covered peak of Mount Damavand can be seen in the distance from the Iranian capital Tehran. This snow covered peak is as famous and well loved by the people of Iran as is Fujiyama by the Japanese. It is immediately obvious from its steep-sided conical shape that this is not simply a tall mountain. Mount Damavand is a volcano.

Where is Mount Damavand?

It is located around 60 km north-east of the city in the Eastern side of the Lar National Park where it towers above the surrounding land.

Damavand Mountain Map
Damavand Mountain Location Map

Mount Damavand Summit and Elevation

Everything about Mount Damavand fits in perfectly with most people’s idea of a typical volcano. It has an elevation of 5,670 m and its summit shows a small concave crater. It is the highest point in the middle east and the highest volcano in Asia.

How Was Mount Damavand Formed?

Mount Damavand is technically described as being a strato-volcano meaning that it is built up from layers of volcanic rock. It stands in an area which has previously been volcanically active and it rises from the southern rim of a 9 km wide caldera. A caldera is a large crater formed when a volcano collapses into itself.

Mount Damavand Routes
Mount Damavand Routes

Is Mount Damavand an Active Volcano?

In terms of volcanology, there is no such thing as an inactive volcano but some erupt more frequently than others. There are certainly no historical records of Damavand erupting and scientific evidence shows that its last eruption occurred in approximately 5300 BC. There could be a temptation to describe it as a dormant volcano but the summit of Mount Damavand does emit spurts of hot sulphurous gases known as fumaroles and at lower levels, hot springs emerge indicating volcanic activity fairly close to the surface. Rather than being dormant, Damavand could perhaps be better described as snoozing.
Mount Damavand

Mount Damavand Myths and Legends

Mount Damavand features widely as a symbol of the Iranian nation and it even appears on some of the country’s currency. It is said to be the place from which a magic arrow was fired to mark the country’s boundary and, in Persian mythology, it is said to house a three headed dragon which will remain there until the end of the world.

Visiting Mount Damavand

Iran does still not feature on the major tourist map but this very significant mountain generates a great deal of interest from the climbing community. In particular, the challenge of climbing each continent’s highest volcano ensures that there is no shortage of potential climbers looking to conquer this peak.

Climbing Mount Damavand

For foreign climbers wishing to make this ascent, the best way is to make arrangements through one of the tour operators specialising in mountaineering. They can make all of the necessary arrangements including the permissions to climb the mountain. By climbing standards, this climb requires no special skills or abilities other than a good level of fitness and some altitude acclimatisation. There are several different routes to the summit but the southern face is the most popular and probably the easiest. Porters and possibly pack-mules are available to help with load-lugging and the southern route currently features two huts at 3000 m and 4150 m. Climbers who have made the ascent have reported that the last 300 m are the most difficult and sulphurous gasses often cannot be avoided but the view from the summit is simply breathtaking. Mount Damavand is certainly one of the world’s most beautiful volcanoes.


  1. I have to cite this article for a school paper. If you could please tell me who wrote this article and when it is was last updated. That would be great thank you. You can contact me at my email.

    1. Hey Emma Same for me and my frind but we dont have to learn about it we got to choose which one 🙂

  2. I have to cite this article for a school assignment. Would you please be able to email me the author of the article and when it was last updated?

  3. I have to cite this article for a school paper. Would you be able to please email me the author and when the article was last updated as it would be a great help. Thank you

    1. The story of Fereydoun and Zahak
      Mardas is a precious king and a god of fear who rules over the spear-riding plains. He has a son named Zahak, who is also called “Biorasb”; Because ten thousand greyhounds are in his fossil. The demon breaks Zahak’s heart and leads him astray. It was in him that he dug a well in his father’s way to achieve his kingdom, and thus destroyed him. Zahak kills his father’s evil demon; And seduces and misleads the devil: when Zahak comes to rule, he makes another deception; And in the youthful face of Khwaligar, he goes to Zahak. Takes the key to the king’s house stew; And becomes his Khanslar. In this way, he cultivates Zahak with stews such as “Zardeh Khayeh” and chicken and lamb to “suddenly give him a little wisdom”. Zahak decides to reward the demon for these guava stews; Dave asks Zahak to accept that he kisses her on the shoulder “like his partner”. From the kiss of the demon on Zahak’s two shoulders, two wonderful snakes grow from them; And they swallow him quietly. The deceitful and deceitful demon, in order to make the world of the people, advises the unfortunate and troubled king of the day to stew snakes from the minds of the people; Unless they rest and die from it.

      At the same time, the Iranians, who have severed ties with Jamshid, rush to Tazian; And Zahak is called the Shah of Iran. When his dragon comes to Iran and wears a crown. Jamshid falls to Zahak after a hundred years of displacement and flight to the Chinese coast; And at his command it is torn in two with a saw. Zahak commands tyranny and destruction for a thousand years. During this time, every night Khorshgar takes two young men to the Shah’s porch, kills them; And it makes stew for the dragon from their brains. Eventually, two pious races named Armail and Garmayl decide to go to the king in a hurry to save only one of the two young men who were to be killed. They kill a sheep instead of one of these young men; Thus, thirty young people die every month. Because two hundred of these races are gathered from the dead, goats are given to them and they are given our way. The Kurds are the race of these young people.

      At a time when forty years have passed since the days of Zahak, one night in a dream, he sees three young men of war, “two elders, one older in the middle.” The young warrior and charismatic Gaussar mace is caught in the clutches; And puts Palhang on his neck. Then the mountain rises to Damavand. Zaimeh laughs out of fear; He shares his dream with the sun-worshipers, who, too, are suddenly taken aback by his cry. These sun-worshipers are the daughters of Jamshid, Shahrnaz and Arnavazand, whose laughter has taken a toll on them. Zahak, on the advice of Arnavaz, buys priests and gathers astronomers and magicians from all sides and tells them to reveal the secret of the dream to him. Sleepwalkers remain silent for fear of death; Finally, on the fourth day, Zahak becomes angry with them and fears their death. So the awake and wise Binadeli called Zirak, who is the leader of the priests, speaks arrogantly with laughter and reveals the hidden secret.

      Cleverly puts Zahak to sleep as follows: Afridon will give birth to a mother; Bernayi will be humble and graceful; The wand will smash his cow on the back of Zahak and humiliate him. Zahak asks the shrewd one what is the motive of Fereydoun in enmity and hatred with him. Zirak responds that the killing of a wealthy cow by Zahak’s order will upset Fereydoun.

      It’s been a while since Fereydoun gives birth to a mother; Also at the same time, a wonderful, beautiful and colorful cow called rich is born. At the same time, Zahak’s guards imprison Fereydoun’s father Abtin and take him to Zahak. Zahak spends the day on him and stings snakes from his brain. Frank, the wife of Abtin and Mam Fereydoun, afraid of Zahak’s bite, takes Fereydoun, who is an infant, to a meadow where there is a rich cow; And hands him over to the keeper of the meadow. The keeper of the meadow feeds Fereydoun to the milk of that wonderful cow for three years.
      Frank, who is still trembling and frightened by Zahak’s outrage over Fereydoun, comes to the meadow. He takes Fereydoun away from the married man, to take him to Alborzkooh from the group. In Alborzkooh, a religious man who is “saddened by Giti’s work” accepts Fereydoun’s father from Frank and Nick treats him. Zahak learns of rich cattle and meadows; So he lowers the rich cow and throws fire on Fereydoun’s porch.

      Fereydoun comes to the plain from Alborz Mountain at the age of sixteen; And the undercover detector asks his mother about his seed and lineage. Frank tells the story to Fereydoun from the beginning. Fereydoun boils down to what his mother said; It is hot and resentful to try to get dirt out of Zahak’s porch.

      At this time, laughter is in Fereydoun’s mind day and night. So the thoughtful and fearful summons the nobles from every country; And an association is preparing to mobilize an army of courtiers and people. In that association, he asks the elders to write a notarization and testify to his benevolence and justice. At the same time, the plaintiff suddenly roars out of the door. Inevitably, the oppressed are taken to Zahak and placed next to celebrities. The oppressed Dadkhah is a blacksmith named Kaveh who laments the oppression of Zahak; And asks him for his child, who is among those who must be killed; And make stew out of their brains for Zahak snakes. Kaveh’s child is released. Zahak then says that Kaveh should also be a witness.
      When Kaveh summons, he shouts angrily at the old men of the country who have become “demons’ followers”; And does not rebuke them severely. Then he tears the notary apart and puts it on his feet; And leaves the palace with his child. Mahan is amazed at Zahak for telling him why he left Kaveh to speak to him arrogantly and stunned like his friends. Zahak responds that he is helpless against Kaveh; Because Kaveh came out of the door and spoke, it was as if a mountain of iron had suddenly risen between him and Zahak.

      When Kaveh Rooshan comes out of the Shah’s door, he shouts. Makes a flag out of leather that blacksmiths wear around their waists when hammering; And called on the people to follow Fereydoun and revolt against Zahak. Thus, a large army gathers on Kaveh. Kaveh rushes to Fereydoun with this expensive army. When Fereydoun sees that piece of skin, he considers it a sign of good astrology and considers Marwai Farrokh. It adorns it with Diba, Gohar and Zar. So it becomes the priceless leather of the blacksmiths of Kavian. Fereydoun sees the time to fight with Zahak and prepares to go to the campaign. Frank Garianpour hands over Farahmand to Yazdan. Fereydoun tells his two brothers, Kianoosh and Parmayeh, to take the master blacksmith to him. When the blacksmiths are ready, Fereydoun takes a compass and writes it on the buffalo’s soil and tells them to make a pigeon rod out of iron for him.

      Fereydoun goes to the sun and sets off with Farhi and Nik Akhtar in June with an expensive army. It reaches the Arvand River (= Tigris). On the bank of the river, he tells Rudban to take him to the other side with his army. Rudban shines on Fereydoun’s command and asks him for a permit to cross the river, which Zahak has sealed. Fereydoun, angry at the disobedience, closes the river between Kiani. He sits on a sharp knife and throws the safflower in the water. The IRGC also follows him to the sea with good luck. When they reach land, they turn to the “dumb Gentile” or Jerusalem. Near the city of Afridon from a mile away, he sees a bright and lofty palace which is the home of the dragon. Seeing that palace on the sphere, motivates Fereydoun to immediately grab the expensive wand and run towards the city.

      When Fereydoun enters the palace, he drops the spell made by Zahak from above; Because that spell is not in the name of God. So the sorcerer and the male smash the court with expensive sticks; And he stands on the throne of laughter. He brings out the daughters of Jamshid, who are black-haired and sun-kissed, from Zahak Zahak; And says to wash their heads in the religion; And purify them from impurities. Then Fereydoun and Jam’s daughters tell secrets to each other. They tell him that Zahak went to India with the rhythm of destruction and bloodshed; For the secret prophecy told him that he would be paid on earth. So, in order to change the astrologers’ omen, he pours the blood of animals, men and women into a body to wash his head and body in it. The other is that he is suffering from snakes on his shoulders; And Shetan and Asimeh go from one country to another.

      When Zahak was not in Iran, he had a compassionate chakra who had left a treasure, a bed and a house. This path was called “Kondro”. Kendro enters the palace. He sees the new merchant, next to whom Shahrnaz and Arnavaz are sitting, who is sitting on Aurang reigning gracefully and calmly. Kondro, without being surprised or embarrassed, prays for Fereydoun and calls him Afarin. Fereydoun calls him forward; And asks him to introduce himself. Then he tells him to bring Homayoun to a party and arrange it. When Kondro escapes from Fereydoun, he rushes to Zahak; And shares the story with him. Zahak is agitated and walks with the expensive army. The people of the city love Fereydoun at once; And from the roof and on the door of Zahak, clay and stone fall. The elders and the Bernayans join the army of the new ruler. Zahak Kamand holds sixty games in his hand on the tall palace; And Black Narcissus magically sees Shahrnaz in secret with Fereydoun.
      He pulls out a watery sticker that makes the fairy cry. Fereydoun raises Gausser’s wand to strike the dragon. At this time, Soroush comes to him and prevents him from killing Zahak. He tells her to lock Zahak in the mountain. Fereydoun ties Zahak to a solid rope made of milk leather. He then tells the people that everyone should do their work and art so that the world will not be chaotic.

      Then the famous people of the city go to Fereydoun with a request; And their hearts are adorned with obedience to him. Then Fereydoun orders that Zahak be humiliated and thrown in a cage on Hyuni’s back. In this way, he takes Zahak to the infant; And he wants to cut off his body in the mountains. Soroush Lake is once again telling the secret that he will take Zahak to Damavand Mountain only; And choose only those whom there is no choice. Fereydoun goes to Damavand Mountain with some of his companions; And Zahak is tied to a rock with expensive nails.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *